分类存档: Gene Sharp

【视频】如何发动一场有效的革命——著名革命运动研究专家吉恩•夏普博士专题

这个世界变了,那些没有枪的正在取得胜利!(指战胜有枪的独裁者)

发动一场成功的革命,以下几点非常重要:

一,统一的标志(Logo、旗帜等),可以参考此链接中的标志 (更多…)

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Chapter Four

THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT ACTION

The weapons of nonviolent struggle

The technique of nonviolent action consists of numerous spe- cific “methods,” or forms of action. Such methods serve as the weapons of nonviolent struggle. They are used to conduct the conflict by psychological, social, economic, or political pressure, or a combination of these.

Methods of nonviolent action were introduced in Chapters One and Three and some examples were cited. These included protest marches, flying forbidden flags, massive rallies, vigils, so- cial boycotts, economic boycotts, labor strikes, civil disobedience, boycott of phony elections, strikes by civil servants, sit-ins, hun- ger strikes, occupation of offices, and creation of a parallel gov- ernment. Such methods may be used to protest symbolically, end cooperation, or disrupt the operation of the established system.

These and similar methods collectively constitute the overall technique of nonviolent action. Familiarity with their diversity and characteristics is crucial to understanding nonviolent struggle as a whole and its variations in action.

Understanding the methods of nonviolent action 继续阅读 »

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Success has requirements

Nonviolent struggle does not work through magic. Although nonviolent resisters have succeeded many times, they have not done so every time, and certainly not without cost. The simple choice to conduct a conflict by nonviolent action does not guar- antee success.
Many past struggles were only partially successful. Sometimes a victory was short-lived because people did not use it well to consolidate their gains, nor did they effectively resist new threats to their liberties. In other cases, victory in a single campaign won concessions, but new struggles were still required to gain the full objectives. Nevertheless, in some cases, major victories were achieved that many people would have expected to be impossible through nonviolent resistance. 继续阅读 »

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Chapter Three AN ACTIVE TECHNIQUE OF STRUGGLE

A simple insight

Nonviolent action, or nonviolent struggle, is a technique of ac- tion by which the population can restrict and sever the sources of power of their rulers or other oppressors and mobilize their own power potential into effective power. This technique is based on the understanding of political power presented in the previous chapter.

That understanding showed that the power of rulers and of hi- erarchical systems, no matter how dictatorial, depends directly on the obedience and cooperation of the population. Such obedience and cooperation, in turn, depend on the willingness of the popu- lation and a multitude of assistants to consent by their actions or inaction to support the rulers. People may obey and cooperate because they positively approve of the rulers or their orders, or they may obey and cooperate because they are intimidated into submission by the fear of punishment. 继续阅读 »

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Last part http://www.freeinchina.org/waging-nonviolent-struggle5/
The structural basis of resistance

The answer to the problem of uncontrolled political power, that is to oppression, therefore may lie in learning how to carry out and maintain withdrawal of obedience and cooperation de- spite repression. This will not be easy.

Greater confidence and ability to practice noncooperation and disobedience can usually be achieved when members of the popu- lation are able to act as members of groups or institutions. This is also a requirement for effective restriction or severance of the sources of political power that were discussed above. At times, individuals may protest or resign and barely be noticed, but if all persons in a government department refuse to implement a pol- icy, their actions can create a major crisis. 继续阅读 »

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Last post: http://www.freeinchina.org/waging-nonviolent-struggle4/

The sources of power depend on obedience and cooperation

These six sources of political power are necessary to establish or retain power and control. Their availability, however, is sub- ject to constant variation and is not necessarily secure.
The more extensive and detailed the rulers’ control over the population and society, the more such assistance they will require from individuals, groups, organizations, and branches of the gov- ernment. If these needed “assistants” reject the rulers’ authority, they may then carry out the rulers’ wishes and orders ineffi- ciently, or may even flatly refuse to continue their usual assis- tance. When this happens, the total effective power of the rulers is reduced. 继续阅读 »

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3rd part: http://www.freeinchina.org/waging-nonviolent-struggle3

Chapter Two

TAPPING THE ROOTS OF POWER

Human problems and the distribution of power

Important progress has been made over the past century to meet human needs more adequately and to advance freedom and justice throughout the world. However, grave problems remain for which there are no easy solutions. Long-standing conflicts, in- justices, oppression, and violence continue and even take new forms. 继续阅读 »

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2nd part http://www.freeinchina.org/waging-nonviolent-struggle2/
What words to use?

The type of action in these cases and others has been given various names, some of which are useful and others of which are inappropriate. These names include “nonviolent resistance,” “civil resistance,” “passive resistance,” “nonviolence,” “people power,” “political defiance,” and “positive action.” The use of the term “nonviolence” is especially unfortunate, because it con- fuses these forms of mass action with beliefs in ethical or religious nonviolence (“principled nonviolence”). Those beliefs, which have their merits, are different phenomena that usually are unre- lated to mass struggles conducted by people who do not share such beliefs. To identify the technique, we here use and recom- mend the terms nonviolent action or nonviolent struggle. 继续阅读 »

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1st part http://www.freeinchina.org/waging-nonviolent-struggle1

Cases of nonviolent struggle

From the late eighteenth century through the twentieth cen- tury, the technique of nonviolent action was widely used in colo- nial rebellions, international political and economic conflicts, religious conflicts, and anti-slavery resistance.1 This technique has been aimed to secure workers’ right to organize, women’s rights, universal manhood suffrage, and woman suffrage. This type of struggle has been used to gain national independence, to generate economic gains, to resist genocide, to undermine dictatorships, to gain civil rights, to end segregation, and to resist foreign occupa- tions and coups d’état. 继续阅读 »

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Chapter One
FACING ACUTE CONFLICTS

All conflicts are not equal
We live in a world of many conflicts, and we have a responsibility to face many of them.
Not all conflicts are equal. Some are much more important than others, and in some conflicts the issues at stake are more difficult to resolve in acceptable ways than are those in other conflicts.
Where the issues are of only limited importance, the difficulties in reaching a resolution are often small. Potentially, we can split the difference, agree on a third option, or postpone dealing with some issues until a later time. Even in these lesser conflicts, however, the group with a grievance requires effective means of pressing its claims. Otherwise, there is little reason for one’s opponents to consider those claims seriously.
There are, however, many other conflicts in which fundamental issues are, or are believed to be, at stake. These conflicts are not deemed suitable for resolution by any methods that involve compromise. These are “acute conflicts.” 继续阅读 »

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